【青建专访】Richard Paul | 英国顶级建筑事务所的10条设计准则

发布时间: 2022-05-06    浏览(576)

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罗杰斯 史达克 哈伯有限责任合伙事务所的前身是1977年创立的理查德 罗杰斯合伙事务所。通过多年的发展,于2007年更名,以肯定和感谢Graham Stirk(英国伦敦列敦贺大厦写字楼的主创)和Ivan Harbour(斯特林奖获奖作品,铭琪西伦敦中心项目的主创)的杰出贡献。

Rogers Stirk Harbour+Partners (RSHP)was founded as the Richard Rogers Partnership in 1977 but over time evolved and in 2007 the decision was made to rename the firm Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners to reflect the vital contributions of Graham Stirk, designer of the iconic Leadenhall Building, and Ivan Harbour, designer of the Stirling prize winning West London Maggie’s Centre.

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理查德.保罗身为RSHP的合伙人,有非常丰富的国际工作经验,负责管理世界各主要设计项目的庞大建筑师群。他也是事务所拓展亚洲业务的关键人物,目前主持多个在中国、美国的设计项目。

Richard Paul has wide-ranging international experience as a Partner with Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners and managing large architectural teams on major schemes worldwide. He has been key to the development and delivery of the practice’s projects in Asia and is currently working on a number ofschemes in China and USA.

他曾经是福斯特+合伙人建筑事务所董事会成员,参与过香港上海汇丰银行香港总部大楼项目,期间旅居香港数年。

Richard was previously board director of Foster + Partners and worked on the Hong Kong and ShanghaiBank Headquarters in Hong Kong where he also lived for a number of years.

本次专访分上下两篇。

The interview is divided into 2 parts.

上篇

通过案例阐述RSHP的设计准则;

RSHP独有的公司文化;

色彩是RSHP的标签,Richard Paul 本人最爱什么颜色?

如何期待不同国家地区的建筑质量;

如何平衡高技派和人文精神。

Part 1: Illustrateprincipals of RSHP withexamples;

RSHP culture;

Ascolour is RSHP iconic feature, what isMr Paul's favoritecolour?

Expectations onthe standards in different countries;

How to balancehigh-tech andhumanistic care?

青年建筑:RSHP遵循的10条设计准则,强调建筑师对社会的责任感,请您用具体案例阐述一二。

The 10 design principals of RSHP emphasize the architect'sresponsibility forthe society. Please use a couple of examples to illustrate this.

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卡迪夫滨海区视角看建筑外部

Exterior view from the Cardiff Bay waterfront#RSHP

理查德 保罗:作为建筑师,我们有责任通过建筑与空间来改善环境,提升社会水平。第一个案例是英国卡尔迪夫威尔士国会大厦,以开放性和透明性原则作为设计的驱动力。这个项目的设计理念,就是希望它不是孤立隔绝封闭的建筑体,而是通过透明的外表皮,内外相通,可以从内部看到卡尔迪夫海岸和远方,也使内部的活动场景被外部所见,从而鼓励大众参与民主过程。在很多国家,国会的论辩过程通常是闭门会议,不对外开放,我们认为,可以通过建筑设计使论辩过程更具透明性。

Richard Paul:As architects, we are responsible for improving our environment and to better society throughthe buildings and spaces we create. My firstexample is the National Assembly for Wales in Cardiff. We employed the principle of openness and transparency as the driving factor forthe design. The building was conceived not to be an insular or closed edifice but a transparent envelope, looking outwards toCardiff Bay and beyond, therebymaking the inner workings of the Assembly visible and encouraging public participation in the democratic process. In many societies, the democratic process of parliamentary debate generally happens behind closed doors – and we feltthatarchitecture could assist in making thisprocess a more transparent activity.

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威尔士国民议会大厦聚集在一片民主屋頂下

The NationalAssembly for Wales is brought togetherunder a democratic roof#RSHP

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威尔士国民议会

National Assembly for Wales#RSHP

公共空间设置于抬升的石板基座,并形成中空,使阳光可以从顶部穿透至低层的辩论厅。建筑中央的辩论厅空间逐渐升起至屋顶处开口,形成喇叭式风斗的形状,既是建筑实体的中心区域,也是空间的精神核心所在。它处于公共空间核心,随时对外开放,人人都可进来。

The public spaces sitelevated on a slate-clad plinth and are cut away to allow daylight to penetrate the administrative debating chamber at the lower level. The roof is pierced by a wind cowl that rises above the debating chamber at the center of the building. The debating chamber becomes the physical and metaphorical center of the design, and it is surrounded by public space to ensure it remains open and accessible to all.

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威尔士国民议会

National Assembly for Wales #RSHP

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威尔士国民议会

National Assembly for Wales#RSHP

设备依据内部空间的不同需求而设定。辩论厅内设有空调系统,公共大堂则采用自然通风。相比于传统建筑,这种方式达到显著的节能效果。

The servicing strategy responds to the varying demands of the internal spaces:Air-conditioning is providedin the debating chamber, whilstthe publicly accessiblelobby is naturally ventilated. In this way, the design achieves significant energy savings compared to traditional methodsof construction.

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剖面

Diagrammatic section#RSHP

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自然通风和照明剖面

Diagrammatic sectionillustratingnatural ventilation and lighting#RSHP

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威尔士国民议会概念草图

Concept sketch ofNational Assembly for Wales#RSHP

一系列平缓的模块化波浪形屋顶界定了建筑的主要内部空间,而延伸出岸线的基座则形成了公共空间,共同构成新国会大厦简洁一致的外形。新建筑在视线和实体上都与卡尔迪夫湾线产生衔接,形成一个统一的公共空间,吸引行人驻足享受水岸风景,参与民主的进程。

The roof defines the principalspaces within the building in a series of gently undulating, curved roof modules. The plinth rises fromthe bay to define the public realm, rendering the entire design a concise expression of the newly created National Assemblyfor Wales. Both a physical and visual connection is created between the new building and Cardiff Bay, creating a fully integrated public place that engages the public, allowing them to enjoy the waterfront and participate in the democratic process.

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威尔士国民议会

National Assembly for Wales#RSHP

建筑是为人类而设计,而人类则为建筑带来生命、动作、活力。威尔士国会大厦的公共界面正是这个观点的最佳写照。

Buildings are designed for humans, whobring life, movementand vitality to the architecture. Nowhere is this more evident than at the public interface ofthe National Assemblyfor Wales.

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公众参观廊的视角

View of the Assembly fromthe public viewing gallary#RSHP

另一个案例则是位于紧凑市中心的英国伦敦列敦贺大厦写字楼,也是我们的办公室所在,当地民众昵称为“芝士刨子”。这栋50层总高224.5米的塔楼正对着RSHP在19世纪80年代设计的伦敦劳氏总部大楼。

Another example located in a tightercity context is the Leadenhall Building, where our London office is based. Fondly referred to as the Cheesegrater, this 50-storey tower, oppositeLloyd'sof London(designed by RSHP in the1980s)rises to a height of 224.5m.

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置于伦敦城市文脉的设计方案

Design proposal within the context of the City of London#RSHP

它削瘦渐缩的形体在伦敦高楼林立的密集区,形成独特的侧影。建筑向上逐渐收分的形体是基于尊重圣保罗大教堂的天际线要求,从伦敦多年前的著名的报业街——佛里特街看向大教堂的视廊。大楼的渐缩后退的轮廓设计,在这个关键视廊上为大教堂穹顶框出干净的天空背景,不受遮挡。

It is a slender tapering form,creating its own distinctive profile within an emerging cluster of tall buildings in this dense part of the City of London. The building's tapering profile has been informed by the requirement to respect a protected view of St Paul's Cathedral. This view is from Fleet Street, one of London's main newspaper streets many years ago. The tower's design ensures that from this key vantage point the cathedral's dome is still framed by a clear expanse of sky and the building's tapered profile leans back to ensure this context is maintained.

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列敦贺大厦

The Leadenhall Building # RSHP

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圣保罗大教堂的视线通廊

Viewing corridor to St Paul's#RSHP

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Ye Olde Cheshire Cheese pub酒馆的视角

Key view from Ye Olde Cheshire Cheese pub in Fleet StreetFleetStreet街道上#RSHP

建筑表皮赋予高透明度,强化了建筑主要结构构件的清晰和可视性。尽管塔楼的占地率非常高,该方案仍然提供了不可思议的对外开放空间,低层空间内凹,创造出7层高、阳光直射的大型开放空间,设有餐饮商铺和绿植软景,这片半英亩大的公共空间衔接相邻的广场,上方还有一间餐酒馆,可搭乘玻璃电梯前往。这个新公共空间为伦敦市区的高密度环境提供罕见的放松身心的空间。

The building's envelope provides a high degree of transparency, reinforcing the clarity and visibility of the building's primary structural elements. Although the tower's footprint occupies virtually the entire site, the scheme delivers an unprecedented amount of publicly accessible open space. The lower levels are recessed and setback to create a spectacular, sun-lit seven-storey high space, complemented with food and beverage retail units and soft landscaping. This public space offers a half-acre extension to the adjacent piazza. Overlooking the space is a public bar and restaurant served by glazed lifts. This new public realm provides a rare breathing space within the dense urban setting of the City of London.

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列敦豪大厦入口

TheLeadenhall Building entrance# RSHP

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列敦豪大厦施工

Construction oftheLeadenhall Building#RSHP

RSHP十条准则

Public Realm 公共领域

City&Context 城市&肌理

Legibility 可识性

Flexibility 灵活性

Energy 节能环保

Teamwork 团队合作

Systems 系统

Economy 经济

Equality 平等

Constitution 体制

青年建筑:请您分享一下RSHP独有的公司文化,是什么吸引您效力公司几十载?

Can you share with us the unique philosophy of RSHP'sculture, and what attractedyou work atRSHP for such along time?

理查德 保罗:大多数公司为个人所有,或者是一群个体所有,RSHP是偏学院派的体制,在我们的工作背后,是更为崇高的目标,因此每个员工都参与事务所的分红计划。事务所更长期把利润的一大部份,直接捐赠给慈善事业,员工还可以自主选择捐款对象,让大家能够为对这个切身重要的社会做出有价值的贡献。

Richard Paul:RSHP is not like most companies owned by a single individual or group of individuals. The practice has a collegiate approach anda constitution with a moral objective behind its work. This allows staff to be part of a profit-sharing scheme. The company also donates considerable amounts of the profits earned directlyto charitable causes,and staff members also can nominate charities of their own choice in order to make donations. It's a way of people being able to contribute to worthy causes in societywhich are important to them.

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RSHP团队

RSHP team#RSHP

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RSHP在列敦豪大厦的工作室

RSHPstudio in the Leadenhall Building#RSHP

RSHP有强烈的社区文化,而罗杰斯先生就是最坚定的支持者和代言人。事务所多年营造出家庭般的氛围,员工一起工作,互相启发,乐在其中。我们有一群天赋异禀的年轻人,打造适才适所的环境,让这些人才迅速成长,始终是我们发展的关键。

There is a very strong community spirit at RSHP. Richard Rogers has always been a great supporter and advocate of this principle,and there is very much a family spirit that has grown around the practice, which makes the environment an enjoyable creative place to work. We have a great team of talented young people,and creating the right environment for thistalent to flourish has been key to the development of the practice.

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做公益

Charity support#RSHP

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RSHP在列敦豪大厦的工作室

RSHPstudio in the Leadenhall Building#RSHP

从管理角度来说,相较于其他同样规模的公司,RSHP更扁平化。我总是尽量鼓励年轻人勇于表达意见和点子,你永远不知道下一个灵光一现从哪来。通过鼓励团队成员参与和论证解决方案,问题也跟着演变,往往出现意想不到急转弯。

From a management perspective,I believe we have probably a flatter organizational hierarchy than most companies of our size. I always try to encourage the younger team members to come forward with their thoughtsand ideas. You never know where thenext great idea will becoming from. Through the process of engaging the team and debating the issues problems areevolving and solutions developing, often changing direction radically.

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Ben Warner, Richard Paul,Richard Rogers#RSHP

青年建筑:在不同国家做项目,是否会有不同的期待值和项目质量控制标准?

Regarding project quality control, do you have different expectations ofstandards in different countries?

理查德 保罗:这是非常好的问题。有些人用一个绝对指标来衡量建筑质量,一味以绝对的指标来衡量建筑质量不管当地施工质量和市场环境。建筑师应该因应当地施工条件和能力提出可以被实现的设计,无论在非洲,中国,美国或欧洲,各地的施工技术和方法多少有些微差异,应按照个别市场的质量等级和精细度提出因应之道。建筑师需要意识到并接受这点。

Richard Paul:I think this is a really a good question. Some people view a building's quality as absolute, regardless of the construction quality or the market they have been delivered in. As architects, we should be designing in response to the ability ofthe construction environment todeliver. Whether Africa, China, America or Europe, theyall have subtle different construction techniques and methodologies, respondingto their individual marketstoachieve quality in different ways and to varying degrees of refinement. I think one must acknowledge this fact and design accordingly.

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奇夫利8号细部8

Chifley detail#RSHP

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NEO河岸之光

NEO Bankside#RSHP

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NEO河岸之光

NEO Bankside#RSHP

我认为,要想达到最高的项目品质,建筑师需要和施工产业紧密合作,尤其是那些交付最终成品者,所以我们除了充分理解局限性,更知道各种专业的最新制造技术能够达成的各种可能性。

I believe to achieve the best possible project quality requires working closely with the construction industry. And a particularly close relationship withthose who are delivering the end product, so we fully appreciate not only the limitations but also the possibilities of what can be achieved using the latest manufacturing techniques and the particular specialismthey can bring to the table.

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Floor plates are linked by internal atria to create villages

室内中庭连通个楼层形成竖向村庄#RSHP

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奇夫利8号入口大堂

8Chifley entrance plaza#RSHP

我曾经在中国的一家钢铁制造企业勘察工人焊接十分复杂的钢构件,当我转身发现至少有20多名焊接工人站在我后面,好奇我到底在看什么。他们很惊讶居然真的有人关注他们的焊接质量,之前根本没人对他们做出的视觉效果感兴趣。对我来说,即使是最小的细节也要把关好质量。作为一个建筑师,我们亲自了解建筑构件的制作过程,而这也是我们巧做建筑的乐趣所在。

I was once inspecting the welding of some quite intricate steel assemblies at a steel production facility in China,and as I turned around there must have been twenty welders looking over my shoulder wondering what I was looking at. They were amazed that someone was actually interested in the quality of their welding. They had never before seen anyone taking any interest in the visual aspects of their work. For me it is all about achieving the quality–even at a very detailed level. As architects we are intimately involved inunderstanding the production processes behind the elements that go into our buildings. It's part of the joy of crafting a building.

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列敦贺大厦

8Chifley at night#RSHP

伦敦的海德公园一号,在业主和设计团队坚持不懈的共同努力之下,无论材质还是细部,都做到了尽善尽美。它是如此杰出,也因此打动了万科,并回应他们在中国上海通过「中兴路一号」项目的期望。从哲学的观点来看,能否把先前的成功案例转移到万科的上海项目呢?随着接触更多中国市场的项目,我们也更了解当地的期待。我认为目前我们在中国项目的质量,在过去几年已经大幅度提高了。

A great example is One Hyde Park in London, where the persistence of both the developer and the design team achieved exceptional quality conveyed in both the detailing and materiality throughout the project. It really is exceptional. I believe this is one of the main reasons which got Vanke interested and responded to their aspirations for Oriental One in Shanghai. From a philosophical perspective, could some of the principles and processes which had delivered these results be transported to their project in Shanghai? The more we work with the local market, the greater the understanding of the expectations.

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海德公园一号鸟瞰

Aerial view ofOne Hyde Park#RSHP

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海德公园一号

One Hyde Park#RSHP

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海德公园一号骑卫队

Horse guardsride pastOne Hyde Park#RSHP

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海德公园一号

One Hyde Park#RSHP

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东西立面低层细部

Detailed East and West elevationsatlow levels# RSHP

青年建筑:通常,高技派和工业化给人冷冰冰的感觉,色彩则带给人活力。其他建筑师往往一身黑,而RSHP却总是色彩斑斓,独具标志性,您最爱的颜色是哪款?

Usually,thehigh-tech and industry sectors makepeople feel cold and distant. But colour shows vigor. Comparedto other“completelydressedin black”architects, color is aniconic featureof RSHP. Whatis your favorite colour?

理查德 保罗:建筑师经常黑色着装,我不知道原因,黑色好沉闷。色彩在我们的项目中,就像是视觉代码,可以标识出建筑物的不同构件。我倒很喜欢色彩,而且最爱橘色,所以看到我们很多进行中的项目都有橘色,它给事务所的项目增添细节、视觉清晰度和亮点

Richard Paul:Architects generally love to wear black, I don't understand why, it's such a dismal colour. Colour is used in our projects to convey a visual coding, to illustrate how different parts of the building come together. I love colour, particularly orange,which finds its way into several projects we are working on. It adds another level of detail, visual articulation and emphasis to the work of the practice.

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“内翻外”回顾展

Inside Out exhibition#RSHP

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“内翻外”回顾展

Inside Out exhibition#RSHP

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“内翻外”回顾展

Inside Out exhibition#RSHP

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“内翻外”回顾展

Inside Out exhibition#RSHP

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列敦豪大厦

The Leadenhall building #RSHP

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梅拉诺多功能大楼

Merano#RSHP

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梅拉诺多功能大楼

Merano#RSHP

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悉尼国际塔

International Towers Sydney #RSHP

青年建筑:高技派意味着科技感、工业化,往往给人机械、冰冷的感觉。如何在项目中,体现人文关怀?另外,项目中采用哪些手法体现“可持续设计”?

As an iconic high-tech firm, your projects represent technology and industrialization, referringto mechanization – and potentially creating a cold feeling. How best to balance human care in projects? How to achieve sustainability in projects ?

理查德 保罗:伦敦西部的奇西克商业园区最能回答这个问题。它坐落于高密度市区空间,有景观公共空间、露天表演空间和池塘,这里还包含12栋办公楼、停车场、1座健康会所、游泳池以及咖啡餐吧,项目所在地区曾经是公交保养服务区。

Richard Paul:This question is best addressed by our work at Chiswick Park in the West of London. This new urban business park consists of 12 office buildingsas well as parking, a health club, swimming pool and brasserie/café, all set within a landscaped public environment, complete with an open-air performance space and lakes. It is situated in a dense urban area which used to be a bus maintenance facility.

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奇斯克商务园区

Chiswick Park#RSHP

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园区内5号楼视角

View of the park from building 5#RSHP

项目的最大特点是地块中央的大片公园绿地,公园的两大焦点是两座大湖,设置原木风雨廊栈道衔接各栋建筑。相对于机动车,该项目对于行人更为友好。有75%的人都是步行、骑行或搭乘公交和地铁来上班。所有车行路线都设在外围,导入有景观和隔屏的车库或建筑地下室。

The key feature of the development is the spectacular parkland setting forming the heart of the site. The focal point of the park arethe two large lakes, with a canopied timber boardwalk from the entrance of the site to each of the buildings. It has been developed as a place prioritizing the movement of people over that of vehicles. Designed for pedestrian priority (75% of those working at the development arrive on foot, bicycle, bus or train),all vehicular activity is routed around the perimeter edge of the site to landscaped screened carparks or undercrofts beneath the buildings.

http://img.zhux2.com/editor1650809846646966.jpg

4号楼

Building 4#RSHP

http://img.zhux2.com/editor1650809842625812.jpg

奇斯克商务园区

Chiswick Park#RSHP

照片中你可以看到黄色的标语「乐在工作」,这是我们从园区项目初始就与业主成立的公司,在园区内雇员和访客中形成一种社团的凝聚力,并在园区中央的活动广场定期组织一系列活动,开放园区内的所有成员参加,这样可以将园区社团都凝聚在一起,也包括在园区周边工作的成员。

Onthe yellow banner in the photograph you can see the words“enjoy work". This is a company we established with the developer from the initial development of the park, whose objective was to createcommunity spirit among all the different tenants and guests who occupy space within the buildings. They organize a series of events which all occupiers can participate inand which regularly take place in the events square at the centre of the park. This is to bring the Chiswick Park's community together, as well as those working in the immediate areas surroundingthe park.

http://img.zhux2.com/editor1650809838784855.jpg

7号楼(乐在工作)

Building 7 (enjoy work)#RSHP

这个项目的魅力之处,是能在城市中心区通过景观布置创造了舒适的环境,又能在市中心亲近大自然,不仅有益身心健康,更最大程度提升工作力。

It is the landscaped character that creates a relaxed environment to work in–and being in such close proximity to an abundance of nature in the heart of the city is part of its charm. It's great for people's wellbeing and maximizes productivity.

http://img.zhux2.com/editor1650809833981269.jpg

遮阳百叶

Louvres#RSHP

建筑外部采用大量玻璃幕墙,保证最大的采光和视线通透性,并可以保证大面积的一览无余的办公空间。节能设计包括固定式和可调节式外遮阳:天棚的遮阳百叶和东西立面的可收缩百叶,可根据天棚上的光感应器自动调节。这些遮阳设施覆盖大约80%的建筑表面,结合冷热置换系统,显著降低建筑整体的空调能耗。

The buildings'facades are highly glazed to maximize views and access to daylight, and to enclose large, unobstructed office spaces. The comprehensive energy strategy includes both fixed and adjustable external sun shading. These are in the form of an external canopy of louvres at roof level as well as retractable fabric blinds on the East and West facades, that are operated automatically via roof-mounted sunlight sensors. Theyshade approximately 80% of the building's surfaces, and together with a displacement heating and cooling system, significantly reduce the requirement for air-conditioning.

http://img.zhux2.com/editor1650809829769307.jpg

奇斯克商务园区

Chiswick Park#RSHP

Coming soon.

下篇,理查德保罗先生将分享他个人的设计理念,包括世贸中心三号塔楼项目;

他的职业生涯中,为什么选择诺曼福斯特事务所和RSHP事务所?

亚太、中国的哪些魅力吸引了他?

目前RSHP在中国主要进行哪些项目?

敬请关注。

Part 2: Richard Paull will show examples ofPotsdamer Platz and Tower 3 World TradeCentersharinghis own design philosophy;

In his career, why he chose F+P and RSHP?

What attractshim to work in Asia and China for so many years?

Projects ongoing in China;

http://img.zhux2.com/editor1650809825805069.jpg

世贸中心三号塔楼

Tower 3 World TradeCenter #RSHP

http://img.zhux2.com/editor1650809822135377.jpg

由于疫情影响,原定的当面采访改为网络采访。所以,只能用这样的“合影”了。非常期待与理查德保罗先生的会面。


主页: 天高云淡    阅读原文

标签: 建筑设计师 人物访谈 人物故事

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