建筑材料纤维水泥板到底是什么?又该如何制作呢?

发布时间: 2019-05-18    浏览(192)

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How Are Fiber Cement Panels Created?


火车车厢最初是由水泥和纤维制作而成。机器将这些混合物经过加工,按照层次打造成具有一定厚度与尺度的面板。但是在建筑材料的制造过程中,人们需要考虑一些更具体的内容。在本文中,Swisspearl的生产技术负责人Marco Ziethen为我们解释了纤维水泥板的制作过程。


Swisspearl的纤维水泥产品生产工厂分别位于瑞士、奥地利、德国、斯洛文尼亚。生产技术负责人Marco Ziethen带小编参观了位于瑞士下乌尔嫩的工厂,该工厂位于阿尔卑斯山中部地区,已经有着100多年的历史。他的同事Klemens Bösch有时也会与我们共事。在1901年,Ludwig Hatschek为其产品申请了专利,该项专利内容为人造石材面板的制作程序,这些面板来源于纤维材料与液压粘合剂的结合, “Eternit”是他们的注册商标。他为我们特别说明了水泥与纤维的混合物,以及旋转圆柱滤网的生产流程。


发明这项工艺的目标是生产轻质、耐用的建筑面板。此类产品具有耐候性、耐腐蚀性、耐霜冻、耐紫外线、防火、轻质、易于机械加工等特点。


At the start, train cars stand ready with cement and bales of fibers. A machine processes the mixture layer by layer into panels of the desired size and thickness. However, some specific production knowledge must be considered in the manufacture of the building material. Marco Ziethen, Swisspearl’s head of production technology, explains us the fabrication process of fiber cement.

Several factories in Switzerland, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia manufacture Swisspearl fiber cement products. Marco Ziethen, head of production technology, guides me through the plant in Niederurnen, which has been located here in the midst of the Swiss Alps for more than 100 years. His colleague Klemens Bösch joins us at times. In 1901, Ludwig Hatschek patented his “Procedure for the manufacture of artificial stone plates from fibrous materials and hydraulic binding agents,” and registered “Eternit” as a brand name. With this, he specified the mixture of cement and fibers as well as the production process using a rotating cylindrical sieve.

The inventor’s goal was to produce a light, durable building panel. The products made by this process are weather-, corrosion, frost, and UV-resistant, rot and fireproof, relatively light, and mechanically processable.


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原材料:纤维水泥板的原材料是什么?


纤维水泥板的主要原材料是水泥、合成纤维、纸浆、水,然后再加入颜料。纸浆是植物纤维经过化学分解之后产生的纤维团,主要成分是纤维素。


在上世纪70年代,在人们了解了吸入石棉的危害之后,便开始广泛地寻找其替代品。在1981年至1989年间,人们首次发现了新产品,在1990年5月,在Niederurnen与Payerne的工厂生产出来的建筑材料均不再含有石棉。具有增强型性质的合成纤维(PVA)来源于日本,纸浆则来源于诸如奥地利等不同国家。


Starting material: What raw materials are used to produce fiber cement panels?

The main raw materials are cement, synthetic fibers, pulp, and water; color pigments are added to that. Pulp is the term used for the fibrous mass that arises during the chemical decomposition of plant fibers, which is comprised primarily of cellulose.

After the danger of inhaling asbestos became known in the 1970s a broad research program was introduced in Niederurnen to find a replacement. The first trials and initial new production took place between 1981 and 1989. Since May 1, 1990, all products for building construction from the factories in Niederurnen and Payerne have been free of asbestos. The synthetic fibers (PVA), which provide reinforcement, are from Japan. The pulp is from various countries, including Austria.


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混合:原材料如何加工与混合?其操作步骤是什么?


首先,纸浆需要溶解在水中,然后经过研磨到一定的细度,最后会与合成纤维添加在一起。这种混合物一般在大型缸体中制作,经过化学反应会产生氢桥,这会将各个材料混合起来。最后,在机器中加入水泥,制作的过程就此开始。


Mixture: How and in what order are the starting materials processed and mixed?

First, bales of pulp are dissolved in water and milled to the desired fineness. This slurry is added to the pulp and synthetic fibers. The mixture is prepared in large vats in such a way that hydrogen bridges form during the chemical process, which hold the ingredients together. Finally, the cement is added in the intensive mixer. Now the setting process begins.


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面板机器:面板机器如何工作?


制作面板的机器来源于瑞士公司Bell,是生产过程的核心部件。三个圆柱形过滤器在水泥纤维混合物中搅拌,然后形成厚度约0.9毫米的薄膜,而这种薄膜会根据需求环绕搅拌棍,直到达到一定的厚度。这个过程大概需要花费20至100秒,这取决于面板的尺度与形式。搅拌棍的直径能够决定面板的长度,可以通过切割而达到其原始形态。如果需要生产不同尺寸的面板,可以通过不同的选项设置而进行。面板机器的操作者只能是有经验的工人,他们需要控制装置,有时也需要手动操作。


Panel machines: How does the so-called panel machine work?

The panel machine, which was supplied by the swiss company Bell, is the heart of the production facility. Three cylindrical sieves rotate in the cement-fiber-water slurry. The rotation leads to the formation of a ca. 0.9-millimeter-thin layer, which is wound around the format roll as often as is required until the necessary thickness has been achieved. This process takes between 20 and 100 seconds, depending on the panel’s dimension and format. The diameter of the format roll determines the length of the panel, which achieves its raw format by means of an appropriate cutting blade. To produce a different format, these units have to be changed. Only experienced employees work on the panel machines. They control the measuring devices, but also use their eyes and hands.


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挤压干燥设备:如何干燥原材料?


首先,钢材置于中间层,压制的压力大约为10000吨,这样才能排出多余的水分。然后面板的含水量会从28%减少到15%,其密度也会逐渐上升。水泥和水会继续通过化学反应而逐步硬化,并且在这个过程中释放热量,这种材料有很充足的时间来完成硬化过程。在三个星期之后,其含水量能够保持在7%或8%,然后面板就可以准备进行下一步程序。在第一个步骤中,面板需要经过干燥,相比起蒸压纤维水泥,风干纤维水泥的孔隙率更低,加工起来也更容易一些。


Pressing and drying facility: How are the raw panels dried?

First, the piled-up panels are pressed under a pressure of up to 10,000 tons with steel sheets as intermediary layers, in order to release the extra water. The water content of the panels thereby is reduced from 28 to 15 percent, and the panel density is increased. The cement continues to harden by chemical reaction with water. Heat is released during this process. The material has enough time to hydrate and solidify. After three weeks of setting, the water content remains only at 7 to 8 percent, and the panels are ready for further processing. In a first step, the panels are dried in an oven. In contrast to autoclaved fiber cement, which is steam hardened in autoclaves, air-dried fiber cement is less porous and can be processed more easily.


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涂料:颜色的应用


标准的色彩就能够满足大多数的客户需求。但其实面板的色彩应用较为随意。标准面板既有透明,也有不透明的,另外还有将色彩应用于铸模的Carat系列。涂料应用在面板之中,反射层还能够构成彩虹色系。三年前的Avera系列产品中,涂层表面并没有应用额外的色彩,因此该系列呈现的效果最为自然。


Coating plant: What colors can be applied?

A standard assortment of color shades is available, which covers most customer demands. On request, however, almost any color can be applied to the panels. The standard range includes glazes and opaque colors as well as the Carat family for which the colors are applied onto panels with molded-in color. The paints are poured or sprayed onto the panels. Reflex coating offers also an iridescent series of hues with a hammer blow effect. With the Avera range, introduced three years ago, no additional color pigments are used in the coating and thus Avera shows the mass-colored fiber cement in its most natural form.


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切割与表面:形式与表面完成面


生产规格的最大标准是3070 × 1250毫米,不过生产规格也在不断地适应市场需求,有时也会将标准面板增宽20毫米。较大的面板有着5种不同的标准格式,都可以切割而成。生产商对于表面的光滑度需求很高,并于去年开始应用Incora面板,其中用了大理石。在今年,有着织物肌理的Texial面板也即将投入生产,其他的表面面板也正在开发。


Cut and finish: What formats and surface finishes are possible?

The maximum standard format that we produce is 3,070 × 1,250 millimeters. We are currently adapting to market demand and are increasing the standard panel width by 20 millimeters. There are five standard formats for large-format panels, from which all formats can then be cut. We are constantly in search of special surface finishes. Last year we introduced the Incora panel, which has marble granulate sprinkled in. This year, the Texial panels with a textile weave imprint are ready for production. Other exciting surface finishes are under development at the moment, but unfortunately, I’m not able to say anything about them yet.


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永恒的配方


天然原材料和耐久的独特性构成了这项产品的成功配方,该产品已经存在超过100年。水泥、纤维素、增强纤维、水是其原料。然后逐层应用在不同尺寸的面板之中。然后,再对面板进行压制、干燥、染色、切割等步骤。连续的操作使得材料成分保持一致,面板表面保持均匀。有辨识度的质感肌理、多样性与持久性是纤维水泥的特征。


以下是水泥的主要成分:


Recipe for Eternity

Natural raw materials and enduring ingenuity shape the recipe for success for this product, which has been manufactured for more than 100 years. Cement, cellulose, and reinforcing fibers combined with water form a raw mass. This is applied layer by layer to panels of the desired size. Following that, the panels are pressed, dried, and finally, dyed and cut to order. Constant quality controls assure a consistent material composition and homogeneous surfaces. After all, what distinguishes fiber cement is its recognizable texture and its equally diverse and durable coatings.

Fiber cement consists of the following five main components:


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